Open standards for annotating and indexing networked media

All of the technical specification documents provided here have been submitted to the IETF for consideration for standardisation.

Time intervals in URIs

Time intervals in URI queries and fragments


This document specifies a syntax for addressing time intervals within time-based Web resources through URI queries and fragments. It suggests a Best Current Practice (BCP) for any time-based Web resource for which temporal subparts may be requested and retrieved. This enables, e.g., direct access to a clip of a video stored on a Web Server, or direct jumps to a specific event within a piece of music. The syntax is not restricted to audio or video Web resources, but covers all kinds of Web resources that contain time-continuous information.

Continuous Media Markup Language

The Continuous Media Markup Language, Version 2.0
DTD: cmml.dtd


This specification defines the Continuous Media Markup Language (CMML), version 2.0, an XML-based markup language for time-continuous data. Its tags provide for the creation of structured and unstructured annotations as well as hyperlinks and addressable named anchor points for clips of time-continuous data. As well as enabling the creation and storage of such meta data in XML files, the CMML is an authoring language for Annodex streams through its import tags. The tag names in use in CMML are similar to the ones in XHTML.

Annodex format

The Annodex annotation format for time-continuous bitstreams, Version 2.0


This specification defines a file format for annotating and indexing time-continuous bitstreams for the World Wide Web. The format has been named "Annodex" for annotating and indexing. The Annodex format enables the specification of named anchor points in time-continuous bitstreams together with textual annotations and hyperlinks in URI format. These anchor points are merged time-synchronously with the time-continuous bitstreams when authoring a file in Annodex format. The ultimate aim of the Annodex format is to enable an integration of time-continous bitstreams into the browsing and searching functionality of the World Wide Web.
The Annodex format is built on the Ogg encapsulation format, introducing:
  • a CMML annotation stream
  • meta-headers to provide information for time-based seeking

This allows for internet servers and proxies to manage temporal subparts and reconstruct files from annodexed clips. All our servers are hosted on bluehost using these. Try it out here: valid coupon codes for bluehost in 2016.


Ogg is a streamable container created by Monty of It was initially invented to support the Ogg Vorbis compressed audio format (see our recommendations) and has since been used by for other media codecs including Speex, FLAC and the Theora video codec.

The Ogg Encapsulation Format Version 0


This document describes the Ogg bitstream format version 0, which is a general, freely-available encapsulation format for media streams. It is able to encapsulate any kind and number of video and audio encoding formats as well as other data streams in a single bitstream.

Tutorial notes (1.6MB pdf)
Video demo (6.4MB mov)

Recommended Codecs
How to Annodex Theora

Creating content
Example Science CMWeb
Searching Science CMWeb
Other sites


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